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As sympatric pressures are hypothesized to be the main driver promoting discrimination (Sorensen and Scott 1994; Verzijden et al.2005; ten Cate and Rowe 2007), by extrapolation, allopatric species are less likely to develop discriminatory processes and respond to each others signals (Ord et al. Currently, there is a lack of experimental evidence supporting an absence of inherent discriminatory processes in geographically separated organisms, especially among vertebrates.1994; Rosenthal and Evans 1998; Candolin 2003; Fisher et al. Strong selection against responses to heterospecific sex signals is expected as mistakes in mate choice waste viable mating opportunities and investment (sperm and eggs production) is energetically costly and diverts time from other activities such as foraging (see Ord and Stamps 2009; Ord et al. Therefore, animals typically have high specificity in their signals and so are able to distinguish their own signal from those of heterospecifics (Irwin and Price 1999; Fisher and Rosenthal 2006; Applet and Sorensen 2007; Barata et al. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that females can often display “hidden” preferences for stimuli outside the range of variation of conspecific males (Ryan and Wagner 1987; Mc Lennan and Ryan 1997, 2008; Hankison and Morris 2003; Rosenthal and Ryan 2011).
After 24h, stimulus water (1.5L) from nest guarding males was removed from the holding tank and used in experiments within 15min (Mc Lennan and Ryan 2008). Odor-free water was also prepared by following the same procedure described above but without introducing males into donor tanks.
Sexually mature females were isolated from males for 3 weeks prior to testing and were housed in 90-L aquaria.
Animals were maintained on a 16:8 light:dark cycle at 18 °C and fed a mixture of bloodworms and ground fishmeal-based pellets (Carpco Crumble Coppens®).
The incidents occurred during a USO tour in the Middle East in 2006. Franken apologized Thursday after a Los Angeles radio anchor accused him of forcibly kissing her Network TV crews were staked out in several locations in Washington, D.
In this July 12, 2017 file photo, Senate Judiciary Committee member Sen. C., Friday as reporters sought further comment from Franken after he issued a written apology for his actions.